Ville-Marie in 1685. Artist's conception by Francis Back for the book Pour le Christ et le Roy, la vie au temps des premiers Montréalais, 1992.
Notes on Augustin Hebert and Adrienne DuVivier, the first colonists of Montreal:
Augustin Hebert is noteworthy for having been among the companions of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, of Champagne on that official day of 18 May 1642, when he disembarked on our shore and for assisting in the founding & first Mass of Ville-Marie of Montreal.
According to Marcel Trudel's "Catalogue des Immigrants 1632-1662" Hebert arrived in 1637. He returned to France in 1646.
At some point in 1646, Augustin Hebert aged 23, the son of Guillaume and Marguerite Meunier Hebert, married Adrienne Du Vivier aged 20, the daughter of Antione and Catherine Journet Vivier in Paris or La Rochelle, France. Two years later, in 1648, they both traveled to New France, where they eventually setted in the new colony of Montreal, Ile Of Montreal, Qc. One child accompanied them , Jeanne Marie, born before 1647. On Jan 16, 1649 Paul (Paula , Pauline) was born in Montreal and died the next day. Legar Hebert was born April 19, 1650 in Montreal and later on October 28, 1652, Ignace Hebert was born. There are several other children listed in the Family Group Record of FamilySearch of the LDS, however in Family Record of PRDH, there are only four children listed. Paul (Paula, Pauline) died at birth. Marie Madeleine Louise Hebert, born about 1650, Notre Dame, Mantes, Paris, France and died 13 Dec 1716 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada is listed in the Family Group Record of LDS but not in the Family Record of the PRDH - Programme de Recherche en Démographie Historique.
In 1648 when they settled in Montreal, Augustin was 25 and Adrienne was 22. Augustin Hebert died September 19, 1653 at the age 30 years. We do know that on September 22,1653, two days after his death, 100 soldiers arrived from Quebec to defend the colony from the Iroquois. Chances are that Augustin died protecting his family and the colony from the Iroquois Indians. At the time of Augustin's death, Adrienne was 27 years old with three small children, ages 6, 3, and 1 years.
On November 19, 1654, Adrienne Du Vivier married Robert Lecavelier dit Deslauriers. According the PRDH, they had three children: Marie Madelene, Jean Baptiste, and Louis Michel. They lived together until his death on July 25, 1699. Adrienne Vivier died on October 20, 1706 at the age of 86. She had seen the Colony of Montreal transformed into a large and busy city. Augustin HEBERT was Marguerite HEBERT dit Lenoir's Great Great Grandfather.
Detail of early Montreal area, 1610-1791
A Brief History of Montreal
Asides from being a city, Montreal is also an island located in the Saint Lawrence River. Approximately 50 kilometers long, 16 kilometers in width, with a 230 meter mountain occupying its center, it was originally inhabited by the Iroquois who had lived in Quebec for thousands of years. The island was called Tiohtiake Tsi or Ka-we-no-te in the Iroquois language.
In 1535, Jacques Cartier (an explorer from France) was amonst the first Europeans to set foot on the island. He and his men climbed up the mountain to place a cross and claim the land in the name of France. Cartier named the mountain "Mont-Royal".
Monument celebrating Montreal at 250 years, 1892
Photo de gauche : Les Monuments commémoratifs de la province de Québec, 1923
Bibliothèque nationale du Québec
À droite : ©Société de développement de Montréal, 1999 Historique de l'oeuvre
Au moment du 250e anniversaire de la fondation de la ville, en 1892, la Société historique de Montréal souhaite marquer l'événement. Elle prend l'initiative de la réalisation de ce monument. L'abbé H.-A. Verreau, alors président de la Société, préside le comité responsable du projet. L'architecte-arpenteur J.-A.-U. Baudry, qui est membre de la Société historique, conçoit le monument. La réalisation des plaques de bronze est confiée à la maison Chanteloup.
Le monument est installé en 1893 sur la place d'Youville, à un emplacement que l'on veut le plus rapproché possible du lieu de fondation de la ville. Il est dévoilé au public le 17 mai 1894.
L'obélisque occupe alors le même emplacement qu'aujourd'hui. Cédé à la Ville de Montréal en 1940, il est déplacé en 1941 sur la place Royale, devant l'ancienne douane. En 1983, l'oeuvre est ramenée à son emplacement d'origine. En 1998, le nouvel aménagement de la place intègre le monument en tant que pièce maîtresse.
Le monument est composé d'une aiguille en forme d'obélisque posé sur un piédestal quadrangulaire, orné de quatre plaques de bronze en forme de trapèze, sur lesquelles on peut lire des inscriptions historiques . L'obélisque est en granit de Stanstead.
L'aiguille a 30 pieds de hauteur et pèse 17 tonnes. En dépit de masses imposantes, l'ensemble, de facture verticale, présente une apparence équilibrée.
Le monument sert à commémorer la fondation de la ville et à rendre hommage aux fondateurs et aux premiers colons arrivés en 1642. Les inscriptions de la face ouest présentent les grandes dates des débuts de la ville. Sur le côté est, on peut lire les intentions de la Société historique au moment de l'érection du monument daté du 18 mai 1893. On considère alors le 18 mai comme la date de fondation de la ville à cause du moment le plus probable de la première messe célébrée sur les lieux. (Aujourd'hui, nous considérons plutôt le 17 mai, date de l'arrivée des fondateurs, comme celle de l'anniversaire). Les inscriptions des côtés sud et nord présentent la liste des fondateurs, incluant les organisateurs et souscripteurs demeurés en France, et la liste des colons arrivés en 1642.
L'obélisque élevé à la mémoire des fondateurs de la ville constitue toujours un point de repère important, d'autant plus qu'il est mis en valeur dans un nouvel aménagement, entre deux importants musées, dans le périmètre désormais officiellement classé comme lieu de la fondation de Montréal.
Pour plus d'information sur un personnage ou une société commémorée :
Augustin Hébert (en 1642), parmi les premiers colons
Françoise Gadois (Godé) (en 1642), parmi les premiers colons
Nicolas Godé (en 1642), parmi les premiers colons
Gilbert Barbier dit Le Minime et Le Nivernais (en 1642), un des premiers colons
Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière (en 1642), un des fondateurs
Jeanne Mance (en 1642), parmi les fondateurs et premiers colons
Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (en 1642), un des fondateurs et premiers colons
Augustin Hébert en 1642
Parmi les premiers colons qui participent à la fondation de Ville-Marie en 1642, on retrouve des artisans mais aussi quelques soldats, dont Augustin Hébert. La défense du nouvel établissement nécessitera la participation de tous ses colons mais particulièrement des soldats. Quatre ans après la fondation de la ville, Hébert épouse Adrienne Duvivier. Il est parmi les premiers à recevoir une terre aux abords de la nouvelle ville en 1648. Cette terre s'étend sur 2 arpents à l'est de la rue Saint-Pierre et commence au nord de la rue Saint-Paul. Décédé en 1653, sa veuve se remarie à Robert Lecavelier dit Deslauriers, lequel se chargera d'élever les enfants mineurs. Décès : en 1653Source: Vieux Montreal http://www.vieux.montreal.qc.ca
In the early 1600's, the island was colonized by the French and the city of Montreal (originally named Ville Marie) was founded in 1642 by Paul de Chomedey Maisonneuve. The name "Montreal" was derived from the French name Mont Royal.
Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve was born in France in 1612. In 1641, a group of devout people gave him the mission to found a colony consecrated to the Holy Virgin in New France, and to call it Ville-Marie. The group that he commanded with Montréal on May 17, 1642. Maisonneuve was the Governor of the island until 1665, when he returned to France. He died in Paris in 1676.
After the defeat of the French colonists by the British in battle of the plains of Abraham in Quebec city in 1759, Montreal was later occupied and administered by Great Britain. The British did not expel the French from the island but allowed them to continue to live there as subjects of the British empire. Colonists from England, Scotland and Ireland subsequently arrived afterwards to live alongside the French.
Despite being conquered by the British, French Montrealers continued to flourish and exist as the majority living on the island over the subsequent decades. English, Scots and Irish settlers intermarried with the French. Many French Montrealers on the island today still have the last name of a British ancestor (ie: Blackburn, Richard, O'Brien....). Some of these last names have also been Frenchized (ex: O'Briens are now mostly called Brien and have dropped the O). A large number of English speaking Montrealers also have French last names.
ADHÉMAR Bases de données du Groupe de recherche sur Montréal Propriété, bâti et population à Montréal, 1642-1805
Over the 3 centuries since Montreal's original foundation, settlements and towns were established in many different areas of the island. Immigrants from many other parts of the world also moved onto the island. These towns and their populations had continued to grow right up to the present day. Their borders had expanded and connected to adjacent towns, eventually connecting to Montreal City itself. As of 2001, the island was home to 27 towns plus the city itself. The city population stood at 1.4 million and the entire island at 3.9 million (Source: UN Population Division 2000 estimate) .
In order to reduce city deficits, balance budgets and evenly distribute town wealth, the government of Quebec (under the control of the Parti Quebecois) passed legislation in 2001 to merge a number of cities and towns in the province of Quebec. As a result, on January 1st, 2002 the suburb towns on the island of Montreal were forced to become boroughs and merge with the city of Montreal.
There was a huge amount of opposition to the forced merger and a large protest had been held in downtown Montreal demanding that the legislation be dropped. Despite the protests, the merger went ahead. At the time, the political opposition party (the Quebec Liberals) had promised that if voted into power in the next election then they would begin demerger plans to bring the city and its towns (now called boroughs) back to their original status.
In 2003, the Quebec Liberals were elected into government. At the time of writing, there have been talks by the government to instead divide the island into three cities (West, Central, East) based on an island referendum vote. However, no firm plans have been set forward yet.
Written by: Ben Koorengevel, August 2003
Ville-Marie (Montreal) in 1642, established originally as an Indian mission and haven
In 1641, some fifty French settlers, both men and women, recruited in France by Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière, of Anjou, on behalf of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal, set sail for New France. They hoped to convert the Natives and create a model Catholic community.
The first mass celebrated in Montréal, in May 1642.
After a long crossing and a number of stops, the small group, led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, of Champagne, with the energetic assistance of Jeanne Mance, landed on the point of land next to the little river on May 17, 1642, and there founded Ville-Marie. The little colony would soon become known as Montréal.
Armed with the faith of pioneers, the new arrivals set to work to build the Ville-Marie fort on the spot where Champlain had once stayed.
Over the years, Amerindians bringing furs in their canoes down from the Great Lakes watched as a small French town grew up on the gentle slopes of the ridge, around the Hôtel-Dieu hospital founded by Jeanne Mance. But repeated wars with the Iroquois made life difficult for the first Montrealers, and the dream of a missionary settlement gradually evaporated.
By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. The parish church and the seminary of the Sulpician fathers, seigneurs of the Island, dominated the little town. Most business was transacted in the Marketplace, located just next to the mouth of the little river. Here Montrealers and Amerindians would meet to trade.
Some key events
1642: The city fathers arrived, reconnoitred the surroundings and erected temporary structures.
1643: Fort Ville-Marie was built; first attack by the Iroquois.
1648: First land concession, to the Pierre Gadois and Louise Mauger household.
1653: Some one hundred new recruits arrived, including Marguerite Bourgeoys, the town's first teacher, who would found a community of teachers.
1663: Seigniorial rights to the Island were transferred by the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal to the Sulpician Seminary.
1672: François Dollier de Casson, Superior of the Seminary, oversaw work to determine the layout of the town, rerouting some streets and planning new ones.
1679: Montrealer Daniel Greysolon Du Luth reached the tip of Lake Superior.
1682: Montrealer René-Robert Cavelier de Lasalle travelled all the way to the mouth of the Mississippi.
Large New France Map 1610-1791.pdf The 1666 Census of Montreal
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